Intrinsic value of American Realty Investors - ARL

Previous Close

$16.94

  Intrinsic Value

$3.57

stock screener

  Rating & Target

str. sell

-79%

Previous close

$16.94

 
Intrinsic value

$3.57

 
Up/down potential

-79%

 
Rating

str. sell

Our model is not good at valuating stocks of financial companies, such as ARL.

We calculate the intrinsic value of ARL stock by summing up the current values of future distributable cash flows generated by the company and dividing the sum by the number of outstanding shares. As such, the intrinsic value calculation depends entirely on projections. The more accurate your projections of the company's performance are - the more reliable is the intrinsic value calculation result. Please make sure to check the stock valuation input data below and adjust it if necessary. The quality of the output (intrinsic valuation result) is only as good as the quality of the input. See also DISCLAIMERS.

STOCK VALUATION INPUT DATA

Initial revenue growth rate, %
Terminal revenue growth rate, %
Revenue decline factor
Initial discount rate, %
Discount rate multiplier
Shares outstanding, mln

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FORECAST and PRESENT VALUE CALCULATION

Fiscal year
2016(a)
   2017
   2018
   2019
   2020
   2021
   2022
   2023
   2024
   2025
   2026
   2027
   2028
   2029
   2030
   2031
   2032
   2033
   2034
   2035
   2036
   2037
   2038
   2039
   2040
   2041
   2042
   2043
   2044
   2045
   2046

INCOME STATEMENT

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue growth rate, %
  15.38
  14.90
  13.91
  13.02
  12.22
  11.50
  10.85
  10.26
  9.74
  9.26
  8.84
  8.45
  8.11
  7.80
  7.52
  7.26
  7.04
  6.83
  6.65
  6.49
  6.34
  6.20
  6.08
  5.97
  5.88
  5.79
  5.71
  5.64
  5.58
  5.52
  5.47
Revenue, $m
  120
  138
  157
  178
  199
  222
  246
  271
  298
  325
  354
  384
  415
  448
  481
  516
  553
  590
  630
  670
  713
  757
  803
  851
  901
  953
  1,008
  1,065
  1,124
  1,186
  1,251
Variable operating expenses, $m
 
  65
  73
  82
  91
  101
  111
  122
  133
  145
  158
  165
  178
  192
  207
  222
  237
  253
  270
  288
  306
  325
  345
  365
  387
  409
  433
  457
  483
  509
  537
Fixed operating expenses, $m
 
  49
  50
  51
  52
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  60
  61
  62
  64
  65
  67
  68
  69
  71
  73
  74
  76
  77
  79
  81
  83
  85
  86
  88
  90
  92
Total operating expenses, $m
  105
  114
  123
  133
  143
  155
  166
  178
  190
  203
  218
  226
  240
  256
  272
  289
  305
  322
  341
  361
  380
  401
  422
  444
  468
  492
  518
  543
  571
  599
  629
Operating income, $m
  15
  24
  34
  44
  56
  68
  80
  93
  107
  122
  137
  158
  175
  192
  210
  228
  247
  267
  288
  310
  333
  356
  381
  407
  433
  461
  491
  521
  553
  587
  622
EBITDA, $m
  39
  167
  197
  228
  260
  295
  332
  370
  411
  453
  497
  542
  590
  639
  691
  744
  800
  858
  918
  980
  1,046
  1,113
  1,184
  1,258
  1,335
  1,415
  1,499
  1,586
  1,677
  1,773
  1,873
Interest expense (income), $m
  51
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
  60
Earnings before tax, $m
  -2
  -36
  -26
  -16
  -5
  7
  20
  33
  47
  62
  77
  98
  114
  132
  149
  168
  187
  207
  228
  250
  272
  296
  321
  346
  373
  401
  430
  461
  493
  526
  561
Tax expense, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  2
  5
  9
  13
  17
  21
  26
  31
  36
  40
  45
  51
  56
  62
  67
  74
  80
  87
  94
  101
  108
  116
  124
  133
  142
  152
Net income, $m
  -3
  -36
  -26
  -16
  -5
  5
  15
  24
  34
  45
  56
  72
  84
  96
  109
  123
  137
  151
  166
  182
  199
  216
  234
  253
  272
  293
  314
  337
  360
  384
  410

BALANCE SHEET

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and short-term investments, $m
  18
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total assets, $m
  1,175
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Adjusted assets (=assets-cash), $m
  1,157
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Revenue / Adjusted assets
  0.104
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
Average production assets, $m
  878
  1,379
  1,570
  1,775
  1,992
  2,221
  2,462
  2,714
  2,978
  3,254
  3,542
  3,841
  4,152
  4,476
  4,813
  5,162
  5,526
  5,903
  6,296
  6,704
  7,129
  7,571
  8,032
  8,512
  9,012
  9,534
  10,078
  10,647
  11,240
  11,861
  12,509
Working capital, $m
  0
  -1,151
  -1,311
  -1,482
  -1,663
  -1,854
  -2,055
  -2,266
  -2,486
  -2,717
  -2,957
  -3,206
  -3,466
  -3,737
  -4,017
  -4,309
  -4,613
  -4,928
  -5,256
  -5,597
  -5,951
  -6,320
  -6,705
  -7,106
  -7,523
  -7,959
  -8,413
  -8,888
  -9,383
  -9,901
  -10,442
Total debt, $m
  851
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
  133
Total liabilities, $m
  1,053
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total equity, $m
  122
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total liabilities and equity, $m
  1,175
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Debt-to-equity ratio
  6.975
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
Adjusted equity ratio
  0.090
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000
  0.000

CASH FLOW

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income, $m
  -3
  -36
  -26
  -16
  -5
  5
  15
  24
  34
  45
  56
  72
  84
  96
  109
  123
  137
  151
  166
  182
  199
  216
  234
  253
  272
  293
  314
  337
  360
  384
  410
Depreciation, amort., depletion, $m
  24
  143
  163
  183
  205
  228
  252
  277
  303
  331
  360
  384
  415
  448
  481
  516
  553
  590
  630
  670
  713
  757
  803
  851
  901
  953
  1,008
  1,065
  1,124
  1,186
  1,251
Funds from operations, $m
  28
  107
  136
  167
  200
  233
  266
  301
  338
  376
  416
  456
  499
  544
  590
  639
  689
  742
  796
  853
  912
  973
  1,037
  1,104
  1,174
  1,246
  1,322
  1,401
  1,484
  1,570
  1,661
Change in working capital, $m
  11
  -149
  -160
  -171
  -181
  -191
  -201
  -211
  -221
  -230
  -240
  -250
  -260
  -270
  -281
  -292
  -303
  -315
  -328
  -341
  -355
  -369
  -384
  -401
  -418
  -436
  -454
  -474
  -496
  -518
  -541
Cash from operations, $m
  17
  257
  296
  338
  381
  424
  467
  512
  558
  606
  656
  706
  759
  814
  871
  931
  992
  1,057
  1,124
  1,194
  1,266
  1,342
  1,422
  1,505
  1,591
  1,682
  1,777
  1,876
  1,979
  2,088
  2,202
Maintenance CAPEX, $m
  0
  -120
  -138
  -157
  -177
  -199
  -222
  -246
  -271
  -298
  -325
  -354
  -384
  -415
  -448
  -481
  -516
  -553
  -590
  -630
  -670
  -713
  -757
  -803
  -851
  -901
  -953
  -1,008
  -1,065
  -1,124
  -1,186
New CAPEX, $m
  -92
  -182
  -192
  -204
  -217
  -229
  -241
  -253
  -264
  -276
  -288
  -299
  -311
  -324
  -336
  -350
  -363
  -378
  -393
  -408
  -425
  -442
  -461
  -480
  -500
  -522
  -544
  -568
  -594
  -620
  -648
Cash from investing activities, $m
  -61
  -302
  -330
  -361
  -394
  -428
  -463
  -499
  -535
  -574
  -613
  -653
  -695
  -739
  -784
  -831
  -879
  -931
  -983
  -1,038
  -1,095
  -1,155
  -1,218
  -1,283
  -1,351
  -1,423
  -1,497
  -1,576
  -1,659
  -1,744
  -1,834
Free cash flow, $m
  -44
  -45
  -33
  -23
  -13
  -4
  4
  13
  23
  33
  43
  52
  63
  75
  87
  100
  113
  127
  141
  156
  171
  187
  204
  222
  240
  259
  279
  299
  321
  344
  368
Issuance/(repayment) of debt, $m
  46
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Issuance/(repurchase) of shares, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash from financing (excl. dividends), $m  
  47
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total cash flow (excl. dividends), $m
  3
  -45
  -33
  -23
  -13
  -4
  4
  13
  23
  33
  43
  52
  63
  75
  87
  100
  113
  127
  141
  156
  171
  187
  204
  222
  240
  259
  279
  299
  321
  344
  368
Retained Cash Flow (-), $m
  1
  -36
  -26
  -16
  -5
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Prev. year cash balance distribution, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash flow adjustment, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash available for distribution, $m
 
  -36
  -26
  -16
  -5
  0
  4
  13
  23
  33
  43
  52
  63
  75
  87
  100
  113
  127
  141
  156
  171
  187
  204
  222
  240
  259
  279
  299
  321
  344
  368
Discount rate, %
 
  8.80
  9.24
  9.70
  10.19
  10.70
  11.23
  11.79
  12.38
  13.00
  13.65
  14.33
  15.05
  15.80
  16.59
  17.42
  18.29
  19.21
  20.17
  21.18
  22.24
  23.35
  24.52
  25.74
  27.03
  28.38
  29.80
  31.29
  32.85
  34.50
  36.22
PV of cash for distribution, $m
 
  -33
  -22
  -12
  -3
  0
  2
  6
  9
  11
  12
  12
  12
  11
  10
  9
  8
  6
  5
  4
  3
  2
  2
  1
  1
  1
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Current shareholders' claim on cash, %
  100
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0

American Realty Investors, Inc. is an externally advised and managed real estate investment company that owns a diverse portfolio of income-producing properties and land held for development. The Company's segments are commercial properties, apartments, land and other. The Company's business is the acquisition, development and ownership of income-producing residential and commercial real estate properties. In addition, the Company acquires land for future development in in-fill or suburban markets. The Company's portfolio of income-producing properties includes residential apartment communities, office buildings, hotels and other commercial properties. It owns approximately 50 residential apartment communities comprising over 7,980 units, approximately nine commercial properties comprising an aggregate of over 2.2 million rentable square feet, an investment in approximately 3,810 acres of undeveloped and partially developed land and a golf course comprising approximately 100 acres.

FINANCIAL RATIOS  of  American Realty Investors (ARL)

Valuation Ratios
P/E Ratio -87.6
Price to Sales 2.2
Price to Book 2.2
Price to Tangible Book
Price to Cash Flow 15.5
Price to Free Cash Flow -3.5
Growth Rates
Sales Growth Rate 15.4%
Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
EPS Growth Rate %
EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
Capital Spending Gr. Rate -55.6%
Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate NaN%
Financial Strength
Quick Ratio NaN
Current Ratio NaN
LT Debt to Equity 697.5%
Total Debt to Equity 697.5%
Interest Coverage 1
Management Effectiveness
Return On Assets 4.2%
Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg. 3.7%
Return On Total Capital -0.3%
Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg. 1.2%
Return On Equity -2.4%
Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg. 8.3%
Asset Turnover 0.1
Profitability Ratios
Gross Margin 47.5%
Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 47.5%
EBITDA Margin 60.8%
EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 55.8%
Operating Margin 12.5%
Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 6.1%
Pre-Tax Margin -1.7%
Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. -9.4%
Net Profit Margin -2.5%
Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 11.6%
Effective Tax Rate 0%
Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg. 37%
Payout Ratio -33.3%

ARL stock valuation input parameters

Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the ARL stock intrinsic value calculation we used $120 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by American Realty Investors. The default revenue input number comes from 2016 income statement of American Realty Investors. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.

Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
    We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our ARL stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 14.9% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
    At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.

Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
    The initial discount rate of 8.8%, whose default value for ARL is calculated based on our internal credit rating of American Realty Investors, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of American Realty Investors.
    By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.

Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of ARL stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 47.6%.

Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $48 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for ARL stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.

Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 45.4% for American Realty Investors.

Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for American Realty Investors. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.

Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the ARL stock is equal to 0%.

Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for ARL are equal to 999.9%.

Life of production assets of 10 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in American Realty Investors operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.

Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for ARL is equal to -834.7%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.

Book value of equity - $0 million for American Realty Investors - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.

Shares outstanding of 16 million for American Realty Investors is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.

Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of American Realty Investors at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $0.3 billion.

RELATED COMPANIES Price Int.Val. Rating
INTG Intergroup 30.55 12.14  sell

COMPANY NEWS

▶ ARL: 1Q Earnings Snapshot   [May-15-18 07:09PM  Associated Press]
▶ ARL posts 3Q profit   [Nov-16-17 05:12AM  Associated Press]
▶ ARL reports 2Q loss   [Aug-14-17 11:08PM  Associated Press]
▶ ARL reports 1Q loss   [May-16-17 11:44AM  Associated Press]
▶ ARL posts 4Q profit   [Apr-03-17 04:52PM  Associated Press]
▶ American Realty Investors reports Q1 EPS 25c vs. (2c) a year ago   [May-15  01:45PM  at theflyonthewall.com]
Financial statements of ARL
Valuation of Stocks

The paper VALUATION OF STOCKS: The Quest for Intrinsic Value provides a detailed description of our valuation model and discloses the calculation algorithm.

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