Booz Allen Hamilton Holding Corporation provides management and technology, consulting, and engineering services to governments, corporations, and not-for-profit organizations in the United States and internationally. It assists clients in designing cloud architecture solutions, selecting the data that is applicable to storage in the cloud, and developing analytical solutions to gain insights from large data, as well as for developing small and large scale information technology applications, embedded systems, and mobile applications. The company also delivers technical solutions to its clients with core capabilities in command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. In addition, it provides cyber security capabilities help clients anticipate threats to their networks and data; decision analytics capabilities that offer problem-solving techniques, including simulation, mathematical optimization, queuing theory, and machine learning; and data science analytic capabilities that offer techniques, such as data mining, text mining, statistical analysis, and predictive modeling, as well as analytic tools that support end users by providing access to data, analytic outputs, and visualizations. Further, it offers consulting services in the areas of acquisition, program management, and logistics, as well as human capital and learning's; and management consulting services in strategy development, organizational design, efficiency, transformation, and other consulting services. Additionally, it provides digital services to help clients overcome digital challenges; develops cyber solutions and disruptive business models to address threats and vulnerabilities against clients emerging expanding digital enterprise, Internet of things landscape, and connected platforms; offers analytics solutions across entire client set; and provides directed energy services. The company was founded in 1914 and is headquartered in McLean, Virginia.
FINANCIAL RATIOS of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding (BAH)
|Price to Sales||0.8|
|Price to Book||8.4|
|Price to Tangible Book|
|Price to Cash Flow||12.6|
|Price to Free Cash Flow||14.6|
|Sales Growth Rate||7.4%|
|Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate||%|
|EPS Growth Rate||%|
|EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate||%|
|Capital Spending Gr. Rate||-19.4%|
|Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate||20.8%|
|LT Debt to Equity||256.1%|
|Total Debt to Equity||289.7%|
|Return On Assets||8.8%|
|Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg.||9.8%|
|Return On Total Capital||11.9%|
|Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg.||13.4%|
|Return On Equity||51.3%|
|Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg.||93.3%|
|Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||52.2%|
|EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||9.2%|
|Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||8.4%|
|Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||7.1%|
|Net Profit Margin||4.3%|
|Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||4.7%|
|Effective Tax Rate||38.8%|
|Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg.||33.6%|
BAH stock valuation input parameters
Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the BAH stock intrinsic value calculation we used $5406 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by Booz Allen Hamilton Holding. The default revenue input number comes from 2017 income statement of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.
Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our BAH stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 7.4% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.
Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
The initial discount rate of 9.3%, whose default value for BAH is calculated based on our internal credit rating of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding.
By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.
Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of BAH stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 91.3%.
Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $0 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for BAH stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.
Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 3.6% for Booz Allen Hamilton Holding.
Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for Booz Allen Hamilton Holding. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.
Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the BAH stock is equal to 0%.
Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for BAH are equal to 6.3%.
Life of production assets of 27 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in Booz Allen Hamilton Holding operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.
Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for BAH is equal to 3.2%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.
Book value of equity - $408 million for Booz Allen Hamilton Holding - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.
Shares outstanding of 146.173 million for Booz Allen Hamilton Holding is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.
Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of Booz Allen Hamilton Holding at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $4.7 billion.
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