Intrinsic value of Peregrine Pharmaceuticals - PPHM

Previous Close

$3.82

  Intrinsic Value

$0.30

stock screener

  Rating & Target

str. sell

-92%

  Value-price divergence*

-102%

Previous close

$3.82

 
Intrinsic value

$0.30

 
Up/down potential

-92%

 
Rating

str. sell

 
Value-price divergence*

-102%

*Intrinsic value change (in %) minus stock price change (in %) in the past 12 months.

We calculate the intrinsic value of PPHM stock by summing up the current values of future distributable cash flows generated by the company and dividing the sum by the number of outstanding shares. As such, the intrinsic value calculation depends entirely on projections. The more accurate your projections of the company's performance are - the more reliable is the intrinsic value calculation result. Please make sure to check the stock valuation input data below and adjust it if necessary. The quality of the output (intrinsic valuation result) is only as good as the quality of the input. See also DISCLAIMERS.

STOCK VALUATION INPUT DATA

Revenue (in 2017), $M
Initial revenue growth rate, %
Terminal revenue growth rate, %
Revenue decline factor
Initial discount rate, %
Discount rate multiplier
Variable cost ratio, %
Fixed operating expenses, $M
Interest rate on debt, %
Effective corporate tax rate, %
Production assets / Revenue, %
Life of production assets, yrs
Working capital / Revenue, %
Revenue / Adjusted assets
Adjusted equity ratio
Cash flow adjustment, % of Revenue
Book value of equity, $M
Shares outstanding, mln
Market capitalization, $bln 0.2

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FORECAST and PRESENT VALUE CALCULATION

Fiscal year
2017(a)
   2018
   2019
   2020
   2021
   2022
   2023
   2024
   2025
   2026
   2027
   2028
   2029
   2030
   2031
   2032
   2033
   2034
   2035
   2036
   2037
   2038
   2039
   2040
   2041
   2042
   2043
   2044
   2045
   2046
   2047

INCOME STATEMENT

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue growth rate, %
  28.89
  2.00
  2.30
  2.57
  2.81
  3.03
  3.23
  3.41
  3.57
  3.71
  3.84
  3.95
  4.06
  4.15
  4.24
  4.31
  4.38
  4.44
  4.50
  4.55
  4.59
  4.64
  4.67
  4.70
  4.73
  4.76
  4.78
  4.81
  4.83
  4.84
  4.86
Revenue, $m
  58
  59
  61
  62
  64
  66
  68
  70
  73
  75
  78
  81
  85
  88
  92
  96
  100
  105
  109
  114
  119
  125
  131
  137
  143
  150
  158
  165
  173
  181
  190
Variable operating expenses, $m
 
  133
  136
  139
  143
  147
  152
  157
  163
  169
  175
  182
  190
  198
  206
  215
  224
  234
  245
  256
  268
  280
  293
  307
  322
  337
  353
  370
  388
  407
  426
Fixed operating expenses, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total operating expenses, $m
  86
  133
  136
  139
  143
  147
  152
  157
  163
  169
  175
  182
  190
  198
  206
  215
  224
  234
  245
  256
  268
  280
  293
  307
  322
  337
  353
  370
  388
  407
  426
Operating income, $m
  -28
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -79
  -82
  -84
  -87
  -90
  -94
  -97
  -101
  -105
  -109
  -114
  -119
  -124
  -130
  -136
  -142
  -148
  -155
  -162
  -170
  -178
  -187
  -195
  -205
  -215
  -225
  -236
EBITDA, $m
  -26
  -71
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -79
  -82
  -85
  -88
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -111
  -116
  -121
  -126
  -132
  -138
  -144
  -151
  -158
  -165
  -173
  -181
  -190
  -199
  -209
  -219
  -230
Interest expense (income), $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
Earnings before tax, $m
  -28
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -79
  -82
  -85
  -87
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -110
  -115
  -120
  -126
  -131
  -137
  -144
  -150
  -158
  -165
  -173
  -181
  -190
  -199
  -209
  -219
  -230
  -241
Tax expense, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Net income, $m
  -28
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -79
  -82
  -85
  -87
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -110
  -115
  -120
  -126
  -131
  -137
  -144
  -150
  -158
  -165
  -173
  -181
  -190
  -199
  -209
  -219
  -230
  -241

BALANCE SHEET

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and short-term investments, $m
  47
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total assets, $m
  118
  72
  74
  76
  78
  80
  83
  86
  89
  92
  96
  100
  104
  108
  113
  117
  123
  128
  134
  140
  146
  153
  160
  168
  176
  184
  193
  202
  212
  222
  233
Adjusted assets (=assets-cash), $m
  71
  72
  74
  76
  78
  80
  83
  86
  89
  92
  96
  100
  104
  108
  113
  117
  123
  128
  134
  140
  146
  153
  160
  168
  176
  184
  193
  202
  212
  222
  233
Revenue / Adjusted assets
  0.817
  0.819
  0.824
  0.816
  0.821
  0.825
  0.819
  0.814
  0.820
  0.815
  0.813
  0.810
  0.817
  0.815
  0.814
  0.821
  0.813
  0.820
  0.813
  0.814
  0.815
  0.817
  0.819
  0.815
  0.813
  0.815
  0.819
  0.817
  0.816
  0.815
  0.815
Average production assets, $m
  24
  24
  25
  25
  26
  27
  27
  28
  29
  31
  32
  33
  34
  36
  37
  39
  41
  42
  44
  46
  48
  51
  53
  55
  58
  61
  64
  67
  70
  73
  77
Working capital, $m
  26
  -21
  -22
  -22
  -23
  -24
  -25
  -25
  -26
  -27
  -28
  -29
  -31
  -32
  -33
  -35
  -36
  -38
  -40
  -41
  -43
  -45
  -47
  -50
  -52
  -54
  -57
  -60
  -63
  -66
  -69
Total debt, $m
  0
  1
  3
  4
  6
  8
  11
  13
  16
  19
  22
  26
  29
  33
  37
  42
  46
  51
  56
  62
  68
  74
  80
  87
  94
  102
  110
  118
  127
  136
  146
Total liabilities, $m
  65
  65
  67
  68
  70
  72
  75
  77
  80
  83
  86
  90
  93
  97
  101
  106
  110
  115
  120
  126
  132
  138
  144
  151
  158
  166
  174
  182
  191
  200
  210
Total equity, $m
  54
  7
  7
  8
  8
  8
  8
  9
  9
  9
  10
  10
  10
  11
  11
  12
  12
  13
  13
  14
  15
  15
  16
  17
  18
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
Total liabilities and equity, $m
  119
  72
  74
  76
  78
  80
  83
  86
  89
  92
  96
  100
  103
  108
  112
  118
  122
  128
  133
  140
  147
  153
  160
  168
  176
  184
  193
  202
  212
  222
  233
Debt-to-equity ratio
  0.000
  0.160
  0.360
  0.580
  0.810
  1.050
  1.300
  1.550
  1.810
  2.060
  2.320
  2.570
  2.830
  3.070
  3.310
  3.550
  3.780
  4.000
  4.210
  4.420
  4.620
  4.820
  5.000
  5.180
  5.360
  5.520
  5.680
  5.830
  5.980
  6.120
  6.250
Adjusted equity ratio
  0.099
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100
  0.100

CASH FLOW

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income, $m
  -28
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -79
  -82
  -85
  -87
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -110
  -115
  -120
  -126
  -131
  -137
  -144
  -150
  -158
  -165
  -173
  -181
  -190
  -199
  -209
  -219
  -230
  -241
Depreciation, amort., depletion, $m
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  7
Funds from operations, $m
  -57
  -71
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -80
  -82
  -85
  -88
  -92
  -95
  -99
  -103
  -107
  -112
  -117
  -122
  -128
  -134
  -140
  -146
  -153
  -160
  -168
  -176
  -185
  -194
  -203
  -213
  -223
  -234
Change in working capital, $m
  -17
  0
  0
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
Cash from operations, $m
  -40
  -71
  -73
  -74
  -77
  -79
  -81
  -84
  -87
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -111
  -116
  -121
  -126
  -132
  -138
  -144
  -151
  -158
  -166
  -174
  -182
  -191
  -200
  -210
  -220
  -231
Maintenance CAPEX, $m
  0
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -6
  -6
  -6
New CAPEX, $m
  -2
  0
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -4
Cash from investing activities, $m
  -3
  -2
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -8
  -8
  -8
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -10
Free cash flow, $m
  -43
  -73
  -75
  -77
  -79
  -82
  -85
  -88
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -111
  -115
  -120
  -126
  -131
  -137
  -144
  -150
  -158
  -165
  -173
  -181
  -190
  -199
  -209
  -219
  -230
  -241
Issuance/(repayment) of debt, $m
  0
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  7
  7
  8
  8
  8
  9
  9
  10
Issuance/(repurchase) of shares, $m
  33
  74
  75
  77
  80
  82
  85
  88
  91
  94
  98
  102
  106
  111
  116
  121
  126
  132
  138
  144
  151
  158
  166
  174
  182
  191
  200
  210
  220
  231
  242
Cash from financing (excl. dividends), $m  
  32
  75
  76
  79
  82
  84
  87
  91
  94
  97
  101
  105
  110
  115
  120
  125
  131
  137
  143
  149
  157
  164
  172
  181
  189
  199
  208
  218
  229
  240
  252
Total cash flow (excl. dividends), $m
  -11
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  7
  7
  7
  8
  8
  9
  9
  10
  10
  11
Retained Cash Flow (-), $m
  -4
  -74
  -75
  -77
  -80
  -82
  -85
  -88
  -91
  -94
  -98
  -102
  -106
  -111
  -116
  -121
  -126
  -132
  -138
  -144
  -151
  -158
  -166
  -174
  -182
  -191
  -200
  -210
  -220
  -231
  -242
Prev. year cash balance distribution, $m
 
  47
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash flow adjustment, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash available for distribution, $m
 
  -25
  -74
  -75
  -77
  -80
  -82
  -85
  -88
  -91
  -95
  -98
  -102
  -107
  -111
  -116
  -121
  -127
  -132
  -138
  -145
  -151
  -159
  -166
  -174
  -182
  -191
  -200
  -210
  -220
  -231
Discount rate, %
 
  4.30
  4.52
  4.74
  4.98
  5.23
  5.49
  5.76
  6.05
  6.35
  6.67
  7.00
  7.35
  7.72
  8.11
  8.51
  8.94
  9.39
  9.86
  10.35
  10.87
  11.41
  11.98
  12.58
  13.21
  13.87
  14.56
  15.29
  16.05
  16.86
  17.70
PV of cash for distribution, $m
 
  -24
  -67
  -66
  -64
  -62
  -60
  -57
  -55
  -52
  -50
  -47
  -44
  -41
  -37
  -34
  -31
  -28
  -24
  -21
  -18
  -16
  -13
  -11
  -9
  -7
  -6
  -4
  -3
  -2
  -2
Current shareholders' claim on cash, %
  100
  23.4
  5.5
  1.3
  0.3
  0.1
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0
  0.0

Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Peregrine) is a biopharmaceutical company. The Company operates through two segments: Peregrine, which is engaged in the research and development of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer, and Avid, which is engaged in providing contract manufacturing services for third party customers on a fee-for-service basis while also supporting its internal drug development efforts. Bavituximab is its lead immunotherapy candidate. Bavituximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets and binds to phosphatidylserine (PS), a immunosuppressive molecule that is usually located inside the membrane of healthy cells, but then flips and becomes exposed on the outside of cells in the tumor microenvironment, causing the tumor to evade immune detection. The Company's subsidiary is Avid Bioservices, Inc. (Avid). Avid provides integrated current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) services from cell line development to commercial biomanufacturing.

FINANCIAL RATIOS  of  Peregrine Pharmaceuticals (PPHM)

Valuation Ratios
P/E Ratio -6
Price to Sales 2.9
Price to Book 3.1
Price to Tangible Book
Price to Cash Flow -4.2
Price to Free Cash Flow -4
Growth Rates
Sales Growth Rate 28.9%
Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
EPS Growth Rate %
EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
Capital Spending Gr. Rate -77.8%
Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate 14.9%
Financial Strength
Quick Ratio NaN
Current Ratio 0
LT Debt to Equity 0%
Total Debt to Equity 0%
Interest Coverage 0
Management Effectiveness
Return On Assets -24.7%
Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg. -44.1%
Return On Total Capital -53.8%
Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg. -78.4%
Return On Equity -53.8%
Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg. -78.4%
Asset Turnover 0.5
Profitability Ratios
Gross Margin 32.8%
Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 40.8%
EBITDA Margin -44.8%
EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. -115.4%
Operating Margin -48.3%
Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. -119.3%
Pre-Tax Margin -48.3%
Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. -119.3%
Net Profit Margin -48.3%
Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. -119.3%
Effective Tax Rate 0%
Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg. 0%
Payout Ratio -14.3%

PPHM stock valuation input parameters

Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the PPHM stock intrinsic value calculation we used $58 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by Peregrine Pharmaceuticals. The default revenue input number comes from 2017 income statement of Peregrine Pharmaceuticals. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.

Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
    We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our PPHM stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 2% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
    At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.

Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
    The initial discount rate of 4.3%, whose default value for PPHM is calculated based on our internal credit rating of Peregrine Pharmaceuticals, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of Peregrine Pharmaceuticals.
    By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.

Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of PPHM stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 224.1%.

Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $0 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for PPHM stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.

Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 3.5% for Peregrine Pharmaceuticals.

Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for Peregrine Pharmaceuticals. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.

Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the PPHM stock is equal to 0%.

Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for PPHM are equal to 40.5%.

Life of production assets of 11.8 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in Peregrine Pharmaceuticals operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.

Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for PPHM is equal to -36.2%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.

Book value of equity - $54 million for Peregrine Pharmaceuticals - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.

Shares outstanding of 45.349 million for Peregrine Pharmaceuticals is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.

Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of Peregrine Pharmaceuticals at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $0.2 billion.

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COMPANY NEWS

▶ Peregrine reports 1Q loss   [Sep-11-17 07:54PM  Associated Press]
▶ Peregrine Provides Strategic Update   [Jul-31-17 08:30AM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ Peregrine reports 4Q loss   [Jul-14-17 09:51PM  Associated Press]
▶ Top 10 Penny Stocks To Buy in 2017   [Jun-29-17 12:26PM  Insider Monkey]
▶ Peregrine reports 3Q loss   [Mar-13-17 04:56PM  Associated Press]
▶ Peregrine Cancer Test Clears Proof of Concept   [Feb-10-17 12:43PM  at Investopedia]
▶ Heat Biologics to reap benefit of new biotech   [Jan-17-17 11:08AM  at bizjournals.com]
▶ 5 Biotech Penny Stocks Smart Money Is Piling On   [Oct-23-16 04:23PM  at Insider Monkey]
Financial statements of PPHM
Valuation of Stocks

The paper VALUATION OF STOCKS: The Quest for Intrinsic Value provides a detailed description of our valuation model and discloses the calculation algorithm.

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