Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., an agricultural biotechnology trait company, provides late-stage crop productivity and product quality traits for various crops in the food and feed markets worldwide. The company offers a portfolio of agricultural yield traits, including nitrogen use efficiency, water use efficiency/drought tolerance, salinity tolerance, heat tolerance, and herbicide tolerance traits, as well as agronomic trait stacks to enhance crop yields. It also provides agricultural product quality traits, such as gamma linolenic acid safflower oil to manufacturers of nutritional supplements, medical foods, and other products under the Sonova brand name; and arachidonic acid safflower oil that is in Phase III of development for use in infant nutrition products. In addition, the company has various programs under development that include resistant starch; grain quality; and reduced gluten programs for wheat crops, as well as post harvest quality program for tomato crops. Its traits are used to enhance crop yields by enabling plants to manage environmental and nutrient stresses, as well as enhance the quality and value of agricultural products. The company has collaborations with Vilmorin & Cie; Maharashtra Hybrid Seeds Company Limited; Dow AgroSciences; E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; SES Vanderhave; Genective; Scotts; U.S. Sugar; Abbott; Ardent Mills; Bioceres S.A.; Superior Hybrids, Inc.; and others for the development and commercialization of its traits in various crops and consumer products. Arcadia Biosciences, Inc. was founded in 2002 and is headquartered in Davis, California.
FINANCIAL RATIOS of Arcadia Biosciences (RKDA)
|Price to Sales||7.1|
|Price to Book||1|
|Price to Tangible Book|
|Price to Cash Flow||-1.3|
|Price to Free Cash Flow||-1.3|
|Sales Growth Rate||-40%|
|Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate||%|
|EPS Growth Rate||%|
|EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate||%|
|Capital Spending Gr. Rate||NaN%|
|Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate||NaN%|
|LT Debt to Equity||113.6%|
|Total Debt to Equity||113.6%|
|Return On Assets||-29%|
|Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg.||-52.8%|
|Return On Total Capital||-35.7%|
|Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg.||-147.5%|
|Return On Equity||-64.5%|
|Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg.||10.1%|
|Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||79.4%|
|EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||-394%|
|Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||-389.2%|
|Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||-423.2%|
|Net Profit Margin||-666.7%|
|Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg.||-427.9%|
|Effective Tax Rate||0%|
|Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg.||0%|
RKDA stock valuation input parameters
Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the RKDA stock intrinsic value calculation we used $3 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by Arcadia Biosciences. The default revenue input number comes from 2016 income statement of Arcadia Biosciences. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.
Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our RKDA stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 2% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.
Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
The initial discount rate of 4.3%, whose default value for RKDA is calculated based on our internal credit rating of Arcadia Biosciences, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of Arcadia Biosciences.
By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.
Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of RKDA stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 433.3%.
Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $0 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for RKDA stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.
Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 4% for Arcadia Biosciences.
Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for Arcadia Biosciences. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.
Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the RKDA stock is equal to 0%.
Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for RKDA are equal to 0%.
Life of production assets of 10 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in Arcadia Biosciences operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.
Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for RKDA is equal to -10%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.
Book value of equity - $22 million for Arcadia Biosciences - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.
Shares outstanding of 42.988 million for Arcadia Biosciences is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.
Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of Arcadia Biosciences at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $0.0 billion.