Intrinsic value of SP Plus - SP

Previous Close

$35.50

  Intrinsic Value

$36.01

stock screener

  Rating & Target

hold

+1%

  Value-price divergence*

-42%

Previous close

$35.50

 
Intrinsic value

$36.01

 
Up/down potential

+1%

 
Rating

hold

 
Value-price divergence*

-42%

*Intrinsic value change (in %) minus stock price change (in %) in the past 12 months.

We calculate the intrinsic value of SP stock by summing up the current values of future distributable cash flows generated by the company and dividing the sum by the number of outstanding shares. As such, the intrinsic value calculation depends entirely on projections. The more accurate your projections of the company's performance are - the more reliable is the intrinsic value calculation result. Please make sure to check the stock valuation input data below and adjust it if necessary. The quality of the output (intrinsic valuation result) is only as good as the quality of the input. See also DISCLAIMERS.

STOCK VALUATION INPUT DATA

Revenue (in 2016), $M
Initial revenue growth rate, %
Terminal revenue growth rate, %
Revenue decline factor
Initial discount rate, %
Discount rate multiplier
Variable cost ratio, %
Fixed operating expenses, $M
Interest rate on debt, %
Effective corporate tax rate, %
Production assets / Revenue, %
Life of production assets, yrs
Working capital / Revenue, %
Revenue / Adjusted assets
Adjusted equity ratio
Cash flow adjustment, % of Revenue
Book value of equity, $M
Shares outstanding, mln
Market capitalization, $bln 0.8

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FORECAST and PRESENT VALUE CALCULATION

Fiscal year
2016(a)
   2017
   2018
   2019
   2020
   2021
   2022
   2023
   2024
   2025
   2026
   2027
   2028
   2029
   2030
   2031
   2032
   2033
   2034
   2035
   2036
   2037
   2038
   2039
   2040
   2041
   2042
   2043
   2044
   2045
   2046

INCOME STATEMENT

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue growth rate, %
  0.00
  4.30
  4.37
  4.43
  4.49
  4.54
  4.59
  4.63
  4.67
  4.70
  4.73
  4.76
  4.78
  4.80
  4.82
  4.84
  4.86
  4.87
  4.88
  4.89
  4.91
  4.91
  4.92
  4.93
  4.94
  4.94
  4.95
  4.95
  4.96
  4.96
  4.97
Revenue, $m
  1,616
  1,685
  1,759
  1,837
  1,920
  2,007
  2,099
  2,196
  2,298
  2,406
  2,520
  2,640
  2,766
  2,899
  3,039
  3,186
  3,341
  3,503
  3,674
  3,854
  4,043
  4,242
  4,451
  4,670
  4,901
  5,143
  5,398
  5,665
  5,946
  6,242
  6,552
Variable operating expenses, $m
 
  1,643
  1,713
  1,787
  1,865
  1,948
  2,036
  2,128
  2,225
  2,328
  2,436
  2,506
  2,626
  2,752
  2,885
  3,025
  3,171
  3,326
  3,488
  3,659
  3,838
  4,027
  4,225
  4,434
  4,653
  4,883
  5,124
  5,378
  5,645
  5,925
  6,220
Fixed operating expenses, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total operating expenses, $m
  1,563
  1,643
  1,713
  1,787
  1,865
  1,948
  2,036
  2,128
  2,225
  2,328
  2,436
  2,506
  2,626
  2,752
  2,885
  3,025
  3,171
  3,326
  3,488
  3,659
  3,838
  4,027
  4,225
  4,434
  4,653
  4,883
  5,124
  5,378
  5,645
  5,925
  6,220
Operating income, $m
  53
  42
  46
  50
  54
  59
  63
  68
  73
  79
  85
  134
  140
  147
  154
  161
  169
  178
  186
  195
  205
  215
  226
  237
  248
  261
  274
  287
  301
  316
  332
EBITDA, $m
  87
  94
  98
  102
  107
  112
  117
  122
  128
  134
  140
  147
  154
  162
  169
  178
  186
  195
  205
  215
  225
  236
  248
  260
  273
  287
  301
  316
  331
  348
  365
Interest expense (income), $m
  9
  8
  8
  9
  10
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  18
  19
  21
  23
  24
  26
  28
  30
  32
  34
  37
  39
  42
  45
  47
  50
  54
  57
  60
  64
  68
Earnings before tax, $m
  42
  35
  38
  41
  44
  47
  51
  54
  58
  62
  67
  114
  119
  124
  130
  135
  141
  147
  154
  161
  168
  176
  184
  192
  201
  210
  220
  230
  241
  252
  264
Tax expense, $m
  16
  9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  31
  32
  34
  35
  37
  38
  40
  42
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  59
  62
  65
  68
  71
Net income, $m
  23
  25
  27
  30
  32
  34
  37
  40
  43
  46
  49
  84
  87
  91
  95
  99
  103
  108
  112
  117
  123
  128
  134
  140
  147
  153
  161
  168
  176
  184
  193

BALANCE SHEET

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and short-term investments, $m
  22
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total assets, $m
  779
  789
  824
  860
  899
  940
  983
  1,029
  1,077
  1,127
  1,180
  1,237
  1,296
  1,358
  1,423
  1,492
  1,565
  1,641
  1,721
  1,805
  1,894
  1,987
  2,085
  2,188
  2,296
  2,409
  2,528
  2,654
  2,785
  2,923
  3,069
Adjusted assets (=assets-cash), $m
  757
  789
  824
  860
  899
  940
  983
  1,029
  1,077
  1,127
  1,180
  1,237
  1,296
  1,358
  1,423
  1,492
  1,565
  1,641
  1,721
  1,805
  1,894
  1,987
  2,085
  2,188
  2,296
  2,409
  2,528
  2,654
  2,785
  2,923
  3,069
Revenue / Adjusted assets
  2.135
  2.136
  2.135
  2.136
  2.136
  2.135
  2.135
  2.134
  2.134
  2.135
  2.136
  2.134
  2.134
  2.135
  2.136
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.134
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
  2.135
Average production assets, $m
  135
  142
  148
  154
  161
  169
  176
  184
  193
  202
  212
  222
  232
  244
  255
  268
  281
  294
  309
  324
  340
  356
  374
  392
  412
  432
  453
  476
  499
  524
  550
Working capital, $m
  -72
  -78
  -81
  -85
  -88
  -92
  -97
  -101
  -106
  -111
  -116
  -121
  -127
  -133
  -140
  -147
  -154
  -161
  -169
  -177
  -186
  -195
  -205
  -215
  -225
  -237
  -248
  -261
  -274
  -287
  -301
Total debt, $m
  195
  196
  219
  242
  268
  294
  322
  352
  383
  415
  450
  487
  525
  565
  608
  652
  699
  749
  801
  856
  913
  974
  1,037
  1,104
  1,174
  1,247
  1,325
  1,406
  1,492
  1,581
  1,676
Total liabilities, $m
  510
  512
  535
  558
  584
  610
  638
  668
  699
  731
  766
  803
  841
  881
  924
  968
  1,015
  1,065
  1,117
  1,172
  1,229
  1,290
  1,353
  1,420
  1,490
  1,563
  1,641
  1,722
  1,808
  1,897
  1,992
Total equity, $m
  268
  277
  289
  302
  316
  330
  345
  361
  378
  396
  414
  434
  455
  477
  500
  524
  549
  576
  604
  634
  665
  697
  732
  768
  806
  846
  887
  931
  978
  1,026
  1,077
Total liabilities and equity, $m
  778
  789
  824
  860
  900
  940
  983
  1,029
  1,077
  1,127
  1,180
  1,237
  1,296
  1,358
  1,424
  1,492
  1,564
  1,641
  1,721
  1,806
  1,894
  1,987
  2,085
  2,188
  2,296
  2,409
  2,528
  2,653
  2,786
  2,923
  3,069
Debt-to-equity ratio
  0.728
  0.710
  0.760
  0.800
  0.850
  0.890
  0.930
  0.970
  1.010
  1.050
  1.090
  1.120
  1.150
  1.190
  1.220
  1.250
  1.270
  1.300
  1.330
  1.350
  1.370
  1.400
  1.420
  1.440
  1.460
  1.480
  1.490
  1.510
  1.530
  1.540
  1.560
Adjusted equity ratio
  0.325
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351
  0.351

CASH FLOW

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income, $m
  23
  25
  27
  30
  32
  34
  37
  40
  43
  46
  49
  84
  87
  91
  95
  99
  103
  108
  112
  117
  123
  128
  134
  140
  147
  153
  161
  168
  176
  184
  193
Depreciation, amort., depletion, $m
  34
  52
  52
  52
  53
  53
  54
  54
  55
  55
  56
  13
  14
  15
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  20
  21
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  29
  30
  32
  33
Funds from operations, $m
  59
  77
  79
  82
  85
  88
  91
  94
  97
  101
  105
  97
  101
  105
  110
  115
  120
  125
  131
  137
  143
  150
  157
  164
  171
  179
  188
  197
  206
  216
  226
Change in working capital, $m
  -1
  -3
  -3
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -7
  -7
  -7
  -8
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -10
  -10
  -11
  -11
  -12
  -12
  -13
  -14
  -14
Cash from operations, $m
  60
  80
  83
  86
  89
  92
  95
  98
  102
  106
  110
  102
  107
  112
  116
  122
  127
  133
  139
  145
  152
  159
  166
  174
  182
  191
  200
  209
  219
  229
  240
Maintenance CAPEX, $m
  0
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -9
  -10
  -10
  -11
  -11
  -12
  -12
  -13
  -13
  -14
  -15
  -15
  -16
  -17
  -18
  -19
  -20
  -20
  -21
  -23
  -24
  -25
  -26
  -27
  -29
  -30
  -32
New CAPEX, $m
  -17
  -7
  -6
  -7
  -7
  -7
  -8
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -10
  -10
  -11
  -11
  -12
  -12
  -13
  -14
  -14
  -15
  -16
  -17
  -18
  -18
  -19
  -20
  -21
  -22
  -24
  -25
  -26
Cash from investing activities, $m
  -14
  -15
  -15
  -16
  -16
  -17
  -18
  -19
  -20
  -21
  -22
  -23
  -24
  -25
  -27
  -27
  -29
  -31
  -32
  -34
  -36
  -37
  -39
  -41
  -43
  -45
  -47
  -49
  -53
  -55
  -58
Free cash flow, $m
  46
  66
  68
  70
  72
  75
  77
  80
  82
  85
  88
  80
  83
  86
  90
  94
  98
  102
  107
  112
  116
  122
  127
  133
  139
  145
  152
  159
  167
  174
  182
Issuance/(repayment) of debt, $m
  -31
  21
  22
  24
  25
  26
  28
  30
  31
  33
  35
  36
  38
  40
  42
  45
  47
  49
  52
  55
  57
  60
  63
  67
  70
  74
  77
  81
  85
  90
  94
Issuance/(repurchase) of shares, $m
  -8
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash from financing (excl. dividends), $m  
  -42
  21
  22
  24
  25
  26
  28
  30
  31
  33
  35
  36
  38
  40
  42
  45
  47
  49
  52
  55
  57
  60
  63
  67
  70
  74
  77
  81
  85
  90
  94
Total cash flow (excl. dividends), $m
  4
  87
  91
  94
  97
  101
  105
  109
  113
  118
  123
  116
  121
  127
  133
  139
  145
  152
  159
  166
  174
  182
  191
  200
  209
  219
  230
  240
  252
  264
  277
Retained Cash Flow (-), $m
  -18
  -11
  -12
  -13
  -14
  -14
  -15
  -16
  -17
  -18
  -19
  -20
  -21
  -22
  -23
  -24
  -25
  -27
  -28
  -30
  -31
  -33
  -34
  -36
  -38
  -40
  -42
  -44
  -46
  -49
  -51
Prev. year cash balance distribution, $m
 
  2
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash flow adjustment, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash available for distribution, $m
 
  78
  78
  81
  84
  87
  90
  93
  97
  100
  104
  96
  101
  105
  110
  114
  120
  125
  131
  137
  143
  149
  156
  164
  171
  179
  188
  196
  206
  216
  226
Discount rate, %
 
  6.00
  6.30
  6.62
  6.95
  7.29
  7.66
  8.04
  8.44
  8.86
  9.31
  9.77
  10.26
  10.78
  11.31
  11.88
  12.47
  13.10
  13.75
  14.44
  15.16
  15.92
  16.72
  17.55
  18.43
  19.35
  20.32
  21.33
  22.40
  23.52
  24.70
PV of cash for distribution, $m
 
  73
  69
  67
  64
  61
  58
  54
  50
  47
  43
  35
  31
  28
  24
  21
  18
  15
  13
  11
  8
  7
  5
  4
  3
  2
  2
  1
  1
  0
  0
Current shareholders' claim on cash, %
  100
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0

SP Plus Corporation provides parking management, ground transportation, and other ancillary services to commercial, institutional, and municipal clients in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada. It offers facility maintenance, event logistics, training, scheduling, and supervising of service personnel. The company also provides customer service, marketing, and accounting and revenue control functions to facilitate the operation of its clients' facilities or events. In addition, it offers a range of ancillary services, such as shuttle bus vehicles and drivers; ground transportation services, such as taxi and livery dispatch, concierge-type ground transportation information, and support services for arriving passengers; on-street parking meter collection and other forms of parking enforcement services; and remote parking management. Further, the company provides facility maintenance services, including power sweeping and washing, painting and general repairs, and cleaning and seasonal services; security services; and multi-platform marketing services comprising SP+ branded Websites offering clients a platform for marketing their facilities, mobile apps, search marketing, email marketing, and social media campaigns. The company serves private and public owners, municipalities, managers, and developers of office buildings, residential properties, commercial properties, shopping centers and other retail properties, sports and special event complexes, hotels, and healthcare facilities. As of December 31, 2016, it managed 3,686 parking facility locations containing approximately 2.0 million parking spaces in 357 cities; operated 78 parking-related service centers serving 73 airports; operated a fleet of approximately 700 shuttle buses; and operated 652 valet locations. The company was formerly known as Standard Parking Corporation and changed its name to SP Plus Corporation in December 2013. SP Plus Corporation was founded in 1929 and is based in Chicago, Illinois.

FINANCIAL RATIOS  of  SP Plus (SP)

Valuation Ratios
P/E Ratio 34
Price to Sales 0.5
Price to Book 2.9
Price to Tangible Book
Price to Cash Flow 13
Price to Free Cash Flow 18.2
Growth Rates
Sales Growth Rate 0%
Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
EPS Growth Rate %
EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
Capital Spending Gr. Rate 30.8%
Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate 1.2%
Financial Strength
Quick Ratio 1
Current Ratio 0
LT Debt to Equity 65.3%
Total Debt to Equity 72.8%
Interest Coverage 6
Management Effectiveness
Return On Assets 3.7%
Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg. 3.8%
Return On Total Capital 4.9%
Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg. 4.4%
Return On Equity 8.9%
Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg. 8.9%
Asset Turnover 2.1
Profitability Ratios
Gross Margin 10.9%
Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 10.9%
EBITDA Margin 5.3%
EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 4.7%
Operating Margin 3.3%
Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 2.9%
Pre-Tax Margin 2.6%
Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 2%
Net Profit Margin 1.4%
Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 1.3%
Effective Tax Rate 38.1%
Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg. 19.4%
Payout Ratio 0%

SP stock valuation input parameters

Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the SP stock intrinsic value calculation we used $1616 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by SP Plus. The default revenue input number comes from 2016 income statement of SP Plus. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.

Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
    We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our SP stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 4.3% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
    At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.

Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
    The initial discount rate of 6%, whose default value for SP is calculated based on our internal credit rating of SP Plus, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of SP Plus.
    By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.

Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of SP stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 97.6%.

Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $0 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for SP stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.

Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 4.3% for SP Plus.

Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for SP Plus. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.

Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the SP stock is equal to 0%.

Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for SP are equal to 8.4%.

Life of production assets of 16.6 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in SP Plus operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.

Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for SP is equal to -4.6%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.

Book value of equity - $268 million for SP Plus - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.

Shares outstanding of 22.673 million for SP Plus is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.

Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of SP Plus at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $0.8 billion.

RELATED COMPANIES Price Int.Val. Rating
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COMPANY NEWS

▶ SP Plus posts 2Q profit   [Aug-01-17 06:06PM  Associated Press]
▶ SP Plus Corp. Value Analysis (NASDAQ:SP) : June 30, 2017   [Jun-30-17 04:07PM  Capital Cube]
▶ SP+ Elects Gregory A. Reid to Board of Directors   [May-11-17 09:08AM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ SP Plus posts 1Q profit   [May-02-17 07:07PM  Associated Press]
▶ Time to Buy or Sell Stocks and Real Estate?   [Apr-18-17 04:51PM  Zacks]
▶ Bet on 4 Stocks With Increasing Cash Flows   [Apr-13-17 08:40AM  Zacks]
▶ Why SP Plus (SP) Stock Might be a Great Pick   [Mar-22-17 08:43AM  Zacks]
▶ SP Plus Corporation Announces Date for 2017 Annual Meeting   [Mar-10-17 05:03PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ SP+ Expands Hotel Parking Operations in D.C./Maryland   [Feb-15-17 05:50PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ Is SP Plus Corp (SP) A Good Stock To Buy?   [Dec-12-16 02:33AM  at Insider Monkey]
▶ GM has an edge over rival Ford heading into 2017   [Nov-01-16 01:46PM  at MarketWatch]
Stock chart of SP Financial statements of SP
Valuation of Stocks

The paper VALUATION OF STOCKS: The Quest for Intrinsic Value provides a detailed description of our valuation model and discloses the calculation algorithm.

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