Intrinsic value of Koss - KOSS

Previous Close

$1.66

  Intrinsic Value

$1.24

stock screener

  Rating & Target

sell

-25%

Previous close

$1.66

 
Intrinsic value

$1.24

 
Up/down potential

-25%

 
Rating

sell

*Intrinsic value change (in %) minus stock price change (in %) in the past 12 months.

We calculate the intrinsic value of KOSS stock by summing up the current values of future distributable cash flows generated by the company and dividing the sum by the number of outstanding shares. As such, the intrinsic value calculation depends entirely on projections. The more accurate your projections of the company's performance are - the more reliable is the intrinsic value calculation result. Please make sure to check the stock valuation input data below and adjust it if necessary. The quality of the output (intrinsic valuation result) is only as good as the quality of the input. See also DISCLAIMERS.

STOCK VALUATION INPUT DATA

Revenue (in 2017), $M
Initial revenue growth rate, %
Terminal revenue growth rate, %
Revenue decline factor
Initial discount rate, %
Discount rate multiplier
Variable cost ratio, %
Fixed operating expenses, $M
Interest rate on debt, %
Effective corporate tax rate, %
Production assets / Revenue, %
Life of production assets, yrs
Working capital / Revenue, %
Revenue / Adjusted assets
Adjusted equity ratio
Cash flow adjustment, % of Revenue
Book value of equity, $M
Shares outstanding, mln
Market capitalization, $bln 0.0

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FORECAST and PRESENT VALUE CALCULATION

Fiscal year
2017(a)
   2018
   2019
   2020
   2021
   2022
   2023
   2024
   2025
   2026
   2027
   2028
   2029
   2030
   2031
   2032
   2033
   2034
   2035
   2036
   2037
   2038
   2039
   2040
   2041
   2042
   2043
   2044
   2045
   2046
   2047

INCOME STATEMENT

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue growth rate, %
  -7.69
  2.00
  2.30
  2.57
  2.81
  3.03
  3.23
  3.41
  3.57
  3.71
  3.84
  3.95
  4.06
  4.15
  4.24
  4.31
  4.38
  4.44
  4.50
  4.55
  4.59
  4.64
  4.67
  4.70
  4.73
  4.76
  4.78
  4.81
  4.83
  4.84
  4.86
Revenue, $m
  24
  24
  25
  26
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49
  52
  54
  57
  59
  62
  65
  68
  72
  75
  79
Variable operating expenses, $m
 
  22
  23
  24
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  60
  63
  66
  69
  72
Fixed operating expenses, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total operating expenses, $m
  25
  22
  23
  24
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  60
  63
  66
  69
  72
Operating income, $m
  -1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  7
EBITDA, $m
  0
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  7
Interest expense (income), $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Earnings before tax, $m
  -1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
Tax expense, $m
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
Net income, $m
  -1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4

BALANCE SHEET

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and short-term investments, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total assets, $m
  23
  23
  24
  25
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  60
  62
  65
  69
  72
  75
Adjusted assets (=assets-cash), $m
  23
  23
  24
  25
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  60
  62
  65
  69
  72
  75
Revenue / Adjusted assets
  1.043
  1.043
  1.042
  1.040
  1.040
  1.038
  1.037
  1.036
  1.034
  1.033
  1.032
  1.063
  1.029
  1.029
  1.056
  1.053
  1.025
  1.049
  1.047
  1.044
  1.043
  1.040
  1.038
  1.056
  1.035
  1.033
  1.048
  1.046
  1.043
  1.042
  1.053
Average production assets, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Working capital, $m
  10
  10
  10
  11
  11
  11
  12
  12
  13
  13
  14
  14
  15
  15
  16
  17
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  30
  31
  33
Total debt, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  6
  6
  7
  7
  8
  9
  9
  10
  11
  11
Total liabilities, $m
  6
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  6
  6
  7
  7
  7
  8
  8
  8
  9
  9
  9
  10
  10
  11
  11
  12
  12
  13
  14
  14
  15
  16
  16
Total equity, $m
  18
  18
  19
  19
  20
  20
  21
  22
  23
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  29
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  37
  39
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49
  51
  54
  56
  59
Total liabilities and equity, $m
  24
  23
  24
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  29
  31
  32
  33
  35
  37
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  55
  57
  60
  63
  65
  69
  72
  75
Debt-to-equity ratio
  0.000
  0.010
  0.010
  0.020
  0.020
  0.030
  0.040
  0.050
  0.060
  0.060
  0.070
  0.080
  0.090
  0.090
  0.100
  0.110
  0.120
  0.120
  0.130
  0.140
  0.140
  0.150
  0.150
  0.160
  0.160
  0.170
  0.170
  0.180
  0.180
  0.190
  0.190
Adjusted equity ratio
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783
  0.783

CASH FLOW

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income, $m
  -1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
Depreciation, amort., depletion, $m
  1
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Funds from operations, $m
  0
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
Change in working capital, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
Cash from operations, $m
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
Maintenance CAPEX, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
New CAPEX, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash from investing activities, $m
  -1
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Free cash flow, $m
  -1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
Issuance/(repayment) of debt, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
Issuance/(repurchase) of shares, $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash from financing (excl. dividends), $m  
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
Total cash flow (excl. dividends), $m
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
Retained Cash Flow (-), $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -3
  -3
Prev. year cash balance distribution, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash flow adjustment, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash available for distribution, $m
 
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
Discount rate, %
 
  4.30
  4.52
  4.74
  4.98
  5.23
  5.49
  5.76
  6.05
  6.35
  6.67
  7.00
  7.35
  7.72
  8.11
  8.51
  8.94
  9.39
  9.86
  10.35
  10.87
  11.41
  11.98
  12.58
  13.21
  13.87
  14.56
  15.29
  16.05
  16.86
  17.70
PV of cash for distribution, $m
 
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Current shareholders' claim on cash, %
  100
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0

Koss Corporation is engaged in the design, manufacture and sale of stereo headphones and related accessory products. The Company operates in the audio/video industry segment of the home entertainment industry. It markets a line of headphones, wireless Bluetooth headphones, wireless Bluetooth speakers, computer headsets, telecommunications headsets, active noise canceling headphones, and compact disc recordings of American Symphony Orchestras on the Koss Classics label. It markets products used by consumers to listen to music, digital versatile discs (DVDs) in vehicles, sound bytes on computer systems, and other audio related media. The Company's products are sold through retailers, distributors, audio specialty stores, the Internet, direct mail catalogs, regional department store chains, discount department stores, grocery stores, electronics retailers, military exchanges and prisons. It has a manufacturing facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Koss U.K. Limited is its subsidiary.

FINANCIAL RATIOS  of  Koss (KOSS)

Valuation Ratios
P/E Ratio -12.3
Price to Sales 0.5
Price to Book 0.7
Price to Tangible Book
Price to Cash Flow 0
Price to Free Cash Flow 0
Growth Rates
Sales Growth Rate -7.7%
Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
EPS Growth Rate %
EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
Capital Spending Gr. Rate NaN%
Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate -100%
Financial Strength
Quick Ratio NaN
Current Ratio 0
LT Debt to Equity 0%
Total Debt to Equity 0%
Interest Coverage 0
Management Effectiveness
Return On Assets -4.3%
Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg. 0%
Return On Total Capital -5.6%
Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg. 0.1%
Return On Equity -5.6%
Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg. 0.1%
Asset Turnover 1
Profitability Ratios
Gross Margin 29.2%
Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 32.4%
EBITDA Margin 0%
EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 5.3%
Operating Margin -4.2%
Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 1.2%
Pre-Tax Margin -4.2%
Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 2.6%
Net Profit Margin -4.2%
Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. -0.1%
Effective Tax Rate 0%
Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg. 50%
Payout Ratio 0%

KOSS stock valuation input parameters

Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the KOSS stock intrinsic value calculation we used $24 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by Koss. The default revenue input number comes from 2017 income statement of Koss. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.

Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
    We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our KOSS stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 2% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
    At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.

Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
    The initial discount rate of 4.3%, whose default value for KOSS is calculated based on our internal credit rating of Koss, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of Koss.
    By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.

Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of KOSS stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 91.7%.

Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $0 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for KOSS stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.

Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 3.5% for Koss.

Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for Koss. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.

Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the KOSS stock is equal to 0%.

Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for KOSS are equal to 0%.

Life of production assets of 0 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in Koss operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.

Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for KOSS is equal to 41.7%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.

Book value of equity - $18 million for Koss - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.

Shares outstanding of 7.386 million for Koss is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.

Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of Koss at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $0.0 billion.

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COMPANY NEWS

▶ ETFs with exposure to Koss Corp. : September 6, 2017   [Sep-05-17 09:15PM  Capital Cube]
▶ Koss Corp Releases Fourth Quarter Results   [Aug-24-17 05:15PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ Koss Corp.: Strong price momentum but will it sustain?   [Jun-14-17 12:37PM  Capital Cube]
▶ Koss Corp Releases Third Quarter Results   [May-11-17 05:15PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ ETFs with exposure to Koss Corp. : April 17, 2017   [Apr-17-17 12:57PM  Capital Cube]
▶ Feds release Koss embezzler Sue Sachdeva after six years   [Apr-09-17 04:30PM  American City Business Journals]
▶ Koss Launches Porta Pro Limited Edition in Two Colorways   [Nov-21-16 10:04AM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ ETFs with exposure to Koss Corp. : November 2, 2016   [Nov-02-16 01:55PM  Capital Cube]
▶ Koss Corp Q1 Sales Up 15%   [05:15PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ ETFs with exposure to Koss Corp. : October 17, 2016   [Oct-17-16 10:20AM  Capital Cube]
▶ Koss sees sales rise, profits sink for the fiscal fourth quarter   [Aug-19-16 12:25PM  at bizjournals.com]
▶ Koss Corp Q4 Sales Up 26%   [05:15PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ Koss Releases Results for Q3   [05:15PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ Judge throws out Koss' Sachdeva lawsuit against Park Bank   [Mar-14-16 06:55AM  at bizjournals.com]
▶ Koss Sales and Net Income Increase for Q2   [Jan-28-16 05:37PM  at noodls]
▶ Koss Sales and Net Income Increase for Q2   [05:15PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ Koss Corporation Returns to Profitability   [Aug-20  05:15PM  Marketwired]
▶ 10-Q for Koss Corp.   [May-10  08:11PM  at Company Spotlight]
▶ Koss Third Quarter Net Sales Jump 39%   [May-07  06:06PM  at noodls]
▶ Koss Third Quarter Net Sales Jump 39%   [05:15PM  Marketwired]
▶ 10-Q for Koss Corp.   [Feb-01  07:07PM  Company Spotlight]
▶ Pro4S Press Release   [Nov-24  10:32AM  at noodls]
▶ 10-Q for Koss Corp.   [Nov-03  07:08PM  Company Spotlight]
▶ KOSS CORP Files SEC form 10-Q, Quarterly Report   [Oct-31  05:09PM  EDGAR Online]
▶ Koss Plans Move to NASDAQ Capital Market   [05:00PM  Marketwired]
▶ Koss Introduces BT540i Wireless Bluetooth Headphones   [Sep-23  08:30AM  Marketwired]
▶ Koss (KOSS) Downgraded From Hold to Sell   [Sep-19  09:06AM  at TheStreet]
▶ KOSS CORP Files SEC form 10-K, Annual Report   [Aug-28  04:32PM  EDGAR Online]
▶ Koss Reports Loss for the Year   [05:15PM  Marketwired]
▶ Brika Helping Designers Create, Sell to 'Every Girl'   [May-30  12:00AM  at Fox Business]
▶ KOSS CORP Files SEC form 10-Q, Quarterly Report   [May-15  04:44PM  EDGAR Online]
▶ Koss Corp. reports Q3 (0c) vs. 2c a year ago   [05:22PM  at theflyonthewall.com]
Financial statements of KOSS
Valuation of Stocks

The paper VALUATION OF STOCKS: The Quest for Intrinsic Value provides a detailed description of our valuation model and discloses the calculation algorithm.

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