Intrinsic value of PDF Solutions - PDFS

Previous Close

$16.69

  Intrinsic Value

$8.54

stock screener

  Rating & Target

sell

-49%

Previous close

$16.69

 
Intrinsic value

$8.54

 
Up/down potential

-49%

 
Rating

sell

*Intrinsic value change (in %) minus stock price change (in %) in the past 12 months.

We calculate the intrinsic value of PDFS stock by summing up the current values of future distributable cash flows generated by the company and dividing the sum by the number of outstanding shares. As such, the intrinsic value calculation depends entirely on projections. The more accurate your projections of the company's performance are - the more reliable is the intrinsic value calculation result. Please make sure to check the stock valuation input data below and adjust it if necessary. The quality of the output (intrinsic valuation result) is only as good as the quality of the input. See also DISCLAIMERS.

STOCK VALUATION INPUT DATA

Revenue (in 2016), $M
Initial revenue growth rate, %
Terminal revenue growth rate, %
Revenue decline factor
Initial discount rate, %
Discount rate multiplier
Variable cost ratio, %
Fixed operating expenses, $M
Interest rate on debt, %
Effective corporate tax rate, %
Production assets / Revenue, %
Life of production assets, yrs
Working capital / Revenue, %
Revenue / Adjusted assets
Adjusted equity ratio
Cash flow adjustment, % of Revenue
Book value of equity, $M
Shares outstanding, mln
Market capitalization, $bln 0.5

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS FORECAST and PRESENT VALUE CALCULATION

Fiscal year
2016(a)
   2017
   2018
   2019
   2020
   2021
   2022
   2023
   2024
   2025
   2026
   2027
   2028
   2029
   2030
   2031
   2032
   2033
   2034
   2035
   2036
   2037
   2038
   2039
   2040
   2041
   2042
   2043
   2044
   2045
   2046

INCOME STATEMENT

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue growth rate, %
  9.18
  2.00
  2.30
  2.57
  2.81
  3.03
  3.23
  3.41
  3.57
  3.71
  3.84
  3.95
  4.06
  4.15
  4.24
  4.31
  4.38
  4.44
  4.50
  4.55
  4.59
  4.64
  4.67
  4.70
  4.73
  4.76
  4.78
  4.81
  4.83
  4.84
  4.86
Revenue, $m
  107
  109
  112
  115
  118
  121
  125
  129
  134
  139
  144
  150
  156
  163
  170
  177
  185
  193
  202
  211
  220
  231
  241
  253
  265
  277
  291
  305
  319
  335
  351
Variable operating expenses, $m
 
  88
  90
  92
  95
  98
  101
  104
  108
  112
  116
  121
  126
  131
  136
  142
  148
  155
  162
  169
  177
  185
  194
  203
  213
  223
  234
  245
  257
  269
  282
Fixed operating expenses, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total operating expenses, $m
  95
  88
  90
  92
  95
  98
  101
  104
  108
  112
  116
  121
  126
  131
  136
  142
  148
  155
  162
  169
  177
  185
  194
  203
  213
  223
  234
  245
  257
  269
  282
Operating income, $m
  13
  21
  22
  22
  23
  24
  25
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  31
  32
  33
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  60
  63
  66
  69
EBITDA, $m
  18
  25
  26
  27
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  36
  38
  39
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49
  51
  54
  56
  59
  62
  64
  68
  71
  74
  78
  82
Interest expense (income), $m
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
Earnings before tax, $m
  13
  21
  22
  22
  23
  24
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  32
  33
  34
  36
  37
  39
  41
  42
  44
  46
  49
  51
  53
  56
  58
  61
  64
  67
Tax expense, $m
  4
  6
  6
  6
  6
  6
  7
  7
  7
  7
  8
  8
  8
  9
  9
  9
  10
  10
  10
  11
  11
  12
  13
  13
  14
  14
  15
  16
  16
  17
  18
Net income, $m
  9
  16
  16
  16
  17
  17
  18
  18
  19
  20
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  37
  39
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49

BALANCE SHEET

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash and short-term investments, $m
  117
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Total assets, $m
  222
  107
  110
  112
  116
  119
  123
  127
  132
  136
  142
  147
  153
  160
  166
  174
  181
  189
  198
  207
  216
  226
  237
  248
  260
  272
  285
  299
  313
  328
  344
Adjusted assets (=assets-cash), $m
  105
  107
  110
  112
  116
  119
  123
  127
  132
  136
  142
  147
  153
  160
  166
  174
  181
  189
  198
  207
  216
  226
  237
  248
  260
  272
  285
  299
  313
  328
  344
Revenue / Adjusted assets
  1.019
  1.019
  1.018
  1.027
  1.017
  1.017
  1.016
  1.016
  1.015
  1.022
  1.014
  1.020
  1.020
  1.019
  1.024
  1.017
  1.022
  1.021
  1.020
  1.019
  1.019
  1.022
  1.017
  1.020
  1.019
  1.018
  1.021
  1.020
  1.019
  1.021
  1.020
Average production assets, $m
  20
  20
  20
  21
  21
  22
  23
  24
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  37
  38
  40
  42
  44
  46
  48
  50
  53
  55
  58
  61
  64
Working capital, $m
  151
  35
  36
  36
  37
  39
  40
  41
  43
  44
  46
  48
  50
  52
  54
  56
  59
  61
  64
  67
  70
  73
  77
  80
  84
  88
  92
  97
  102
  106
  112
Total debt, $m
  0
  0
  1
  2
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6
  7
  8
  9
  11
  12
  13
  15
  17
  18
  20
  22
  24
  27
  29
  31
  34
  37
  39
  42
  46
  49
  52
Total liabilities, $m
  24
  23
  24
  25
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  36
  38
  40
  41
  43
  45
  47
  50
  52
  54
  57
  60
  62
  65
  69
  72
  75
Total equity, $m
  199
  84
  86
  88
  90
  93
  96
  99
  103
  107
  111
  115
  120
  125
  130
  136
  142
  148
  154
  162
  169
  177
  185
  194
  203
  213
  223
  233
  245
  257
  269
Total liabilities and equity, $m
  223
  107
  110
  113
  115
  119
  123
  127
  132
  137
  142
  147
  154
  160
  166
  174
  182
  189
  197
  207
  216
  227
  237
  248
  260
  273
  285
  298
  314
  329
  344
Debt-to-equity ratio
  0.000
  0.010
  0.010
  0.020
  0.030
  0.030
  0.040
  0.050
  0.060
  0.060
  0.070
  0.080
  0.090
  0.100
  0.100
  0.110
  0.120
  0.120
  0.130
  0.140
  0.140
  0.150
  0.160
  0.160
  0.170
  0.170
  0.180
  0.180
  0.190
  0.190
  0.190
Adjusted equity ratio
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781
  0.781

CASH FLOW

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income, $m
  9
  16
  16
  16
  17
  17
  18
  18
  19
  20
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  30
  31
  32
  34
  35
  37
  39
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49
Depreciation, amort., depletion, $m
  5
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
  5
  5
  5
  6
  6
  6
  6
  7
  7
  7
  8
  8
  8
  9
  9
  10
  10
  11
  11
  12
  12
  13
Funds from operations, $m
  -21
  20
  20
  21
  21
  22
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  33
  34
  36
  37
  39
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49
  51
  54
  56
  59
  62
Change in working capital, $m
  -23
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  4
  4
  4
  4
  4
  5
  5
  5
Cash from operations, $m
  2
  19
  19
  20
  20
  21
  21
  22
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  32
  33
  34
  36
  38
  39
  41
  43
  45
  47
  49
  52
  54
  57
Maintenance CAPEX, $m
  0
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -7
  -7
  -7
  -8
  -8
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -10
  -10
  -11
  -11
  -12
  -12
New CAPEX, $m
  -11
  0
  0
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -1
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -3
Cash from investing activities, $m
  -11
  -4
  -4
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -7
  -7
  -7
  -7
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -10
  -10
  -10
  -11
  -11
  -12
  -12
  -14
  -14
  -15
  -15
Free cash flow, $m
  -9
  15
  15
  15
  15
  16
  16
  16
  17
  17
  18
  19
  19
  20
  21
  22
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  28
  29
  30
  32
  33
  34
  36
  38
  40
  41
Issuance/(repayment) of debt, $m
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
Issuance/(repurchase) of shares, $m
  1
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash from financing (excl. dividends), $m  
  0
  0
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  1
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  2
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
  3
Total cash flow (excl. dividends), $m
  -9
  15
  15
  16
  16
  16
  17
  17
  18
  19
  19
  20
  21
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  29
  30
  31
  33
  34
  36
  37
  39
  41
  43
  45
Retained Cash Flow (-), $m
  -25
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -2
  -3
  -3
  -3
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -4
  -5
  -5
  -5
  -6
  -6
  -6
  -7
  -7
  -7
  -8
  -8
  -9
  -9
  -10
  -10
  -11
  -11
  -12
  -12
Prev. year cash balance distribution, $m
 
  117
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash flow adjustment, $m
 
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
  0
Cash available for distribution, $m
 
  130
  13
  13
  14
  14
  14
  14
  14
  15
  15
  15
  16
  16
  17
  18
  18
  19
  20
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  30
  31
  32
Discount rate, %
 
  4.30
  4.52
  4.74
  4.98
  5.23
  5.49
  5.76
  6.05
  6.35
  6.67
  7.00
  7.35
  7.72
  8.11
  8.51
  8.94
  9.39
  9.86
  10.35
  10.87
  11.41
  11.98
  12.58
  13.21
  13.87
  14.56
  15.29
  16.05
  16.86
  17.70
PV of cash for distribution, $m
 
  125
  12
  12
  11
  11
  10
  10
  9
  8
  8
  7
  7
  6
  6
  5
  5
  4
  4
  3
  3
  2
  2
  2
  1
  1
  1
  1
  0
  0
  0
Current shareholders' claim on cash, %
  100
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0
  100.0

PDF Solutions, Inc. is a provider of infrastructure technologies and services for integrated circuits (IC). The Company's technologies and services focus on the IC manufacturing process life cycle. It operates in the segment of licensing and implementation of yield improvement solutions for integrated circuit manufacturers. The Company's solutions combine software, test chips, an electrical wafer test system, methodologies and professional services. The Company has developed solutions for yield simulation, analysis, loss detection, and improvement. Its characterization vehicle infrastructure (CVi) enables customers to electrically characterize the manufacturing process, and establish fail-rate information needed to calibrate manufacturing yield models and prioritize yield improvement activities. Its Exensio YieldAware solution combines software and services to enable customers to collect and combine product test data and equipment signals during production.

FINANCIAL RATIOS  of  PDF Solutions (PDFS)

Valuation Ratios
P/E Ratio 59.1
Price to Sales 5
Price to Book 2.7
Price to Tangible Book
Price to Cash Flow 265.9
Price to Free Cash Flow -59.1
Growth Rates
Sales Growth Rate 9.2%
Sales - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
EPS Growth Rate %
EPS - 3 Yr. Growth Rate %
Capital Spending Gr. Rate 120%
Cap. Spend. - 3 Yr. Gr. Rate 17.1%
Financial Strength
Quick Ratio NaN
Current Ratio 0
LT Debt to Equity 0%
Total Debt to Equity 0%
Interest Coverage 0
Management Effectiveness
Return On Assets 4.3%
Ret/ On Assets - 3 Yr. Avg. 7.3%
Return On Total Capital 4.8%
Ret/ On T. Cap. - 3 Yr. Avg. 8%
Return On Equity 4.8%
Return On Equity - 3 Yr. Avg. 8%
Asset Turnover 0.5
Profitability Ratios
Gross Margin 58.9%
Gross Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 59.7%
EBITDA Margin 16.8%
EBITDA Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 23.1%
Operating Margin 11.2%
Oper. Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 19.5%
Pre-Tax Margin 12.1%
Pre-Tax Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 19.8%
Net Profit Margin 8.4%
Net Profit Margin - 3 Yr. Avg. 12.9%
Effective Tax Rate 30.8%
Eff/ Tax Rate - 3 Yr. Avg. 34.4%
Payout Ratio 0%

PDFS stock valuation input parameters

Revenue. Company's revenue (or sales) is always the starting point of any cash flow forecast. In the PDFS stock intrinsic value calculation we used $107 million for the last fiscal year's total revenue generated by PDF Solutions. The default revenue input number comes from 2016 income statement of PDF Solutions. You may change it if you feel that it should be adjusted for some unusual circumstances that are not expected to be repeated in the future or if you already know (from interim financial statements, for example) that this year's revenue is going to be quite different.

Revenue growth rate. Forecasted future revenue growth rate is the most important input parameter for the intrinsic value calculation. Unlike other input parameters that are reasonably expected to be in line with their historic averages or their historic trends, the revenue growth rate by and large is a wild card: nobody really knows what the company's revenue will be in the future. Of course, the level of unpredictability is different for different industries (utility companies being the most predictable and, thus, less risky).
    We use three input parameters to forecast the revenue growth rate in our PDFS stock valuation model: a) initial revenue growth rate of 2% whose default value is the revenue growth rate in the most recent quarter compared to the quarterly revenue a year ago; b) terminal revenue growth rate of 5% whose default value is chosen to be close to the average nominal (i.e. not adjusted for inflation) GDP growth rate; and c) revenue decline factor of 0.9, which stipulates that revenue growth rate in each forecasted year will be equal to the difference of the revenue growth rate in the preceding year and the terminal revenue growth rate multiplied by this revenue decline factor (with the passage of time the revenue growth rate will be approaching the terminal revenue growth rate, but not quite reaching it - though the difference could be infinitesimally small).
    At the revenue decline factor of 1, the future revenue growth rate is forecasted to be constant and equal to the initial revenue growth rate. The smaller the revenue decline factor, the faster the revenue growth rate will approach the terminal revenue growth.

Discount rate. The discount rate is used for determining the present value of future cash flows: future cash flows are "discounted" as at normal conditions (that translate into positive expected return on investment) one dollar today is worth more than the same dollar in the future. Unlike all other valuation models, we use variable discount rate, i.e. it increases for each consecutive year. This is done to account for higher risk of cash flows coming in further in the future.
    The initial discount rate of 4.3%, whose default value for PDFS is calculated based on our internal credit rating of PDF Solutions, is applied to the cash flow expected to be received a year from now (well, actually, to be precise, in the financial year following the base year - the last year for which we have financial statements). For each consecutive year the discount rate is multiplied by the discount rate multiplier of 1.05, e.i. each year it increases by 5%. Feel free to change this number to correspond to your level of risk assessment of PDF Solutions.
    By the way, it is easy to set the discount rate to be constant (this would make comparison with other valuation models easier): just set the discount rate multiplier equal to 1 and chose the magnitude of the initial discount rate to your liking.

Variable cost ratio is the ratio of variable costs (i.e. costs that fluctuate with fluctuation of the volume of production) to the revenue expressed as a percentage. In the calculation of intrinsic value of PDFS stock the variable cost ratio is equal to 80.4%.

Fixed operating expenses is just that - expenses that are not dependant on the volume of production. They are set to $0 million in the base year in the intrinsic value calculation for PDFS stock. These expenses increase with the level of inflation in subsequent years.

Interest rate on debt is the average all-in rate of interest paid by the company on its debt. It is set at 3.5% for PDF Solutions.

Corporate tax rate of 27% is the nominal tax rate for PDF Solutions. In reality, companies find ways to pay much less taxes than that or not to pay them at all.

Cash flow adjustment could be used for any adjustment the investor deems necessary. Most commonly we use this field to account for stock options-related effects in excess of what is reported on the company's income statement. The cash flow adjustment is expressed as a percentage of the revenue, and in the current valuation of the PDFS stock is equal to 0%.

Production assets are the company's assets used for manufacturing products or provision of services. In the valuation model input table they are expressed as a percentage of revenue and for PDFS are equal to 18.2%.

Life of production assets of 3.9 years is the average useful life of capital assets used in PDF Solutions operations. It is used to calculate yearly capital expenditures needed to keep these assets in good order - we call it the maintenance CAPEX.

Working capital is the difference between the company's current assets and liabilities. In the model we use the ratio of working capital to revenue, which for PDFS is equal to 31.8%. A negative number means that the company is apt at using financial resources of its suppliers and customers; a large positive number, on the other hand, means that it either provides in-kind financing to others or is not good at managing its inventories.

Book value of equity - $199 million for PDF Solutions - is used in calculation of the "floor" for intrinsic valuation based on the discounted cash flow (DCF) method. Even if the prospects are very bad for a company, its assets could always be sold now for their current fair market value.

Shares outstanding of 32.333 million for PDF Solutions is needed to calculate the intrinsic value of one share.

Market capitalization is used here only for reference purposes and as a quick check that the share price and the number of shares outstanding numbers are correct - something especially to be cognizant about at stock splits. So, the market capitalization of PDF Solutions at the current share price and the inputted number of shares is $0.5 billion.

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COMPANY NEWS

▶ PDF Solutions (PDFS) Jumps: Stock Rises 5.4%   [Nov-24-17 08:42AM  Zacks]
▶ PDF Solutions misses Street 3Q forecasts   [Oct-27-17 05:01AM  Associated Press]
▶ PDF Solutions® Reports Third Fiscal Quarter Results   [Oct-26-17 05:00PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ PDF Solutions misses Street 2Q forecasts   [Jul-27-17 05:58PM  Associated Press]
▶ ETFs with exposure to PDF Solutions, Inc. : July 13, 2017   [Jul-13-17 04:25PM  Capital Cube]
▶ ETFs with exposure to PDF Solutions, Inc. : June 29, 2017   [Jun-29-17 03:16PM  Capital Cube]
▶ ETFs with exposure to PDF Solutions, Inc. : June 12, 2017   [Jun-12-17 02:19PM  Capital Cube]
▶ PDF Solutions misses Street 1Q forecasts   [Apr-27-17 05:14PM  Associated Press]
▶ PDF Solutions matches Street 4Q forecasts   [Feb-13-17 05:51PM  Associated Press]
▶ 3 Small Cap Tech Stocks That Doubled in 2016   [Dec-18-16 12:35PM  at Motley Fool]
▶ Should You Avoid PDF Solutions, Inc. (PDFS)?   [Dec-12-16 04:32PM  at Insider Monkey]
▶ These 2 Stocks Have Doubled Investors' Money in a Year   [Nov-17-16 01:44PM  at Motley Fool]
▶ PDF Solutions® Reports Third Fiscal Quarter Results   [Oct-27-16 04:00PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ PDF Solutions® Analyst Day 2016   [Oct-20-16 07:52PM  GlobeNewswire]
▶ PDF Solutions misses 2Q profit forecasts   [Jul-28-16 05:41PM  AP]
▶ PDF Solutions® Launches New Design-for-Inspection Solution   [May-24-16 04:07PM  GlobeNewswire]
Financial statements of PDFS
Valuation of Stocks

The paper VALUATION OF STOCKS: The Quest for Intrinsic Value provides a detailed description of our valuation model and discloses the calculation algorithm.

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